Faq III: References
3.9 Glossary of terms:
Absence of blade: when the blades are not touching; opposite of
Advance: a movement forward by step, cross, or balestra.
Aids: the last three fingers of the sword hand.
Assault: friendly combat between two fencers.
Attack: the initial offensive action made by extending the sword
arm and continuously threatening the valid target of the
Attack au Fer: an attack that is prepared by deflecting the opponent's
blade, eg. beat, froissement, pressure.
Balestra: a forward hop or jump, typically followed by an attack
such as a lunge or fleche.
Bayonet: a type of electrical connector for weapons.
Beat: an attempt to knock the opponent's blade aside or out of line by
using one's foible or middle against the opponent's foible.
Bind: an action in which the opponent's blade is forced into the
diagonally opposite line.
Black Card: used to indicate the most serious offences in a fencing
competition. The offending fencer is usually expelled from the
event or tournament.
Bout: an assault at which the score is kept.
Broadsword: a military sword and fencing weapon popular in the 18th-19th
centuries, similar to a heavy sabre; any straight-bladed, double-
edged, single-handed cutting sword of the post-medieval period.
Broken Time: a sudden change in the tempo of one fencer's actions, used
to fool the opponent into responding at the wrong time.
Button: the safety tip on the end of practice swords.
Change of Engagement: engagement of the opponent's blade in the
Compound: also composed; an attack or riposte incorporating one or
more feints to the opposite line that the action finishes in.
Conversation: the back-and-forth play of the blades in a fencing match,
composed of phrases (phrases d'armes) punctuated by gaps of no
Counter-attack: an attack made against the right-of-way, or in
response to the opponent's attack.
Counter-disengage: a disengage in the opposite direction, to deceive
Counter-parry: a parry made in the opposite line to the attack; ie.
the defender first comes around to the opposite side of the
Counter-riposte: an attack that follows a parry of the opponent's
Counter-time: an attack that responds to the opponent's counter-attack,
typically a riposte following the parry of the counter-attack.
Corps-a-corps: lit. "body-to-body"; physical contact between the
two fencers during a bout, illegal in foil and sabre.
Coule': also graze, glise', or glissade; an attack or feint that slides
along the opponent's blade.
Coup lance': a launched hit; an attack that starts before a
stop in play but lands after. Valid for normal halts, but not
valid at end of time.
Coupe': also cut-over; an attack or deception that passes around the
Croise: also semi-bind; an action in which the opponent's blade is
forced into the high or low line on the same side.
Cross: an advance or retreat by crossing one leg over the other;
also passe' avant (forward cross), passe' arriere (backwards cross).
Cut: an attack made with a chopping motion of the blade, landing with
the edge or point.
Deception: avoidance of an attempt to engage the blades; see
Derobement: deception of the attack au fer or prise de fer.
Direct: an attack or riposte that finishes in the same line in which it
was formed, with no feints out of that line.
Disengage: a circular movement of the blade that deceives the
opponent's parry, removes the blades from engagement, or changes the
line of engagement.
Displacement: moving the target to avoid an attack; dodging.
Double: in epee, two attacks that arrive within 40-50 ms of each
Double': an attack or riposte that describes a complete circle
around the opponent's blade, and finishes in the opposite line.
Dry: also steam; fencing without electric scoring aids.
Engagement: when the blades are in contact with each other, eg.
during a parry, attack au fer, prise de fer, or coule'.
En Garde: also On Guard; the fencing position; the stance that
fencers assume when preparing to fence.
Envelopment: an engagement that sweeps the opponent's blade
through a full circle.
Epee: a fencing weapon with triangular cross-section blade and a large
bell guard; also a light duelling sword of similar design, popular
in the mid-19th century.
False: an action that is intended to fail, but draw a predicted
reaction from the opponent; also, the back edge of a sabre blade.
Feint: attacking into one line with the intention of switching to
another line before the attack is completed.
Fencing Time: also temps d'escrime; the time required to complete
a single, simple fencing action.
FIE: Federation Internationale d'Escrime, the world governing
body of fencing.
Finta in tempo: lit. "feint in time"; a feint of counter-attack
that draws a counter-time parry, which is decieved.
Fleche: lit. "arrow"; an attack in which the aggressor leaps off his
leading foot, attempts to make the hit, and then passes the opponent
at a run.
Flick: a cut-like action that lands with the point, often involving some
whip of the foible of the blade to "throw" the point around a block
or other obstruction.
Florentine: a fencing style where a secondary weapon or other instrument
is used in the off hand.
Flying Parry or Riposte: a parry with a backwards glide and riposte by
Foible: the upper, weak part of the blade.
Foil: a fencing weapon with rectangular cross-section blade and a small
bell guard; any sword that has been buttoned to render it less
dangerous for practice.
Forte: the lower, strong part of the blade.
French Grip: a traditional hilt with a slightly curved grip and a large
Froissement: an attack that displaces the opponent's blade by a
strong grazing action.
Glide: see coule'.
Guard: the metal cup or bow that protects the hand from being hit.
Also, the defensive position assumed when not attacking.
Hilt: the handle of a sword, consisting of guard, grip, and pommel.
Homologated: certified for use in FIE competitions, eg. 800N clothing
and maraging blades.
In Quartata: an attack made with a quarter turn to the inside,
concealing the front but exposing the back.
In Time: when a stop-hit arrives at least one fencing time before
the original attack.
Indirect: an attack or riposte that finishes in the opposite line to
which it was formed, by means of a disengage or coupe'.
Insistence: forcing an attack through the parry.
Interception: a counter-attack that intercepts and checks an
indirect attack or other disengagement.
Invitation: a line that is intentionally left open to encourage
the opponent to attack.
Italian Grip: a traditional hilt with finger rings and crossbar.
Jury: the 4 officials who watch for hits in a dry fencing bout.
Lame': a metallic vest/jacket used to detect valid touches in foil
Line: the main direction of an attack (eg., high/low, inside/outside),
often equated to the parry that must be made to deflect the attack;
also point in line.
Lunge: an attack made by extending the rear leg and landing on the
bent front leg.
Mal-parry: also mal-pare'; a parry that fails to prevent the attack
Manipulators: the thumb and index finger of the sword hand.
Maraging: a special steel used for making blades; said to be stronger
and break more cleanly than conventional steels.
Marker Points: an old method of detecting hits using inked points.
Martingale: a strap that binds the grip to the wrist/forearm.
Match: the aggregate of bouts between two fencing teams.
Measure: the distance between the fencers.
Middle: the middle third of the blade, between foible and forte.
Neuvieme: an unconventional parry (#9) sometimes described as blade
behind the back, pointing down (a variant of octave), other times
similar to elevated sixte.
Octave: parry #8; blade down and to the outside, wrist supinated.
Opposition: holding the opponent's blade in a non-threatening line;
a time-hit; any attack or counter-attack with opposition.
Parry: a block of the attack, made with the forte of one's own blade.
Pass: an attack made with a cross; eg. fleche, "Russian lunge".
Also, the act of moving past the opponent.
Passata-sotto: a lunge made by dropping one hand to the floor.
Passe': an attack that passes the target without hitting; also a
cross-step (see cross).
Phrase: a set of related actions and reactions in a fencing conversation.
Piste: the linear strip on which a fencing bout is fought; approx.
2m wide and 14m long.
Pistol Grip: a modern, orthopaedic grip, shaped vaguely like a small
pistol; varieties are known by names such as Belgian, German,
Russian, and Visconti.
Plaque': a point attack that lands flat.
Plastron: a partial jacket worn for extra protection; typically a
half-jacket worn under the main jacket on the weapon-arm side of the
Point: a valid touch; the tip of the sword; an attack made with
the point (ie. a thrust)
Point in Line: also line; an extended arm and blade that threatens
Pommel: a fastener that attaches the grip to the blade.
Preparation: the initial phase of an attack, before right-of-way is
Presentation: offering one's blade for engagement by the opponent.
Press: an attempt to push the opponent's blade aside or out of line;
depending on the opponent's response, the press is followed by a
direct or indirect attack.
Prime: parry #1; blade down and to the inside, wrist pronated.
Principle of Defence: the use of forte against foible when parrying.
Priority: in sabre, the now-superceded rules that decide which fencer
will be awarded the touch in the event that they both attack
simultaneously; also used synonymously with right-of-way.
Prise de Fer: also taking the blade; an engagement of the blades
that forces the opponent's weapon into a new line. See: bind,
croise, envelopment, opposition.
Quarte: parry #4; blade up and to the inside, wrist supinated.
Quinte: parry #5; blade up and to the inside, wrist pronated.
In sabre, the blade is held above the head to protect from head
Rapier: a long, double-edged thrusting sword popular in the 16th-17th
Red Card: used to indicate repeated minor rule infractions or a major
rule infraction by one of the fencers; results in a point being
given to the other fencer.
Redoublement: a new action that follows an attack that missed or
was parried; see also Reprise.
Referee: also director, president; the mediator of the fencing bout.
Remise: immediate replacement of an attack that missed or was
parried, without withdrawing the arm.
Reprise: renewal of an attack that missed or was parried, after a
return to en-garde; see also Redoublement.
Retreat: step back; opposite of advance.
Right-of-way: rules for awarding the point in the event of a double
touch in foil or sabre.
Riposte: an attack made immediately after a parry of the opponent's
Sabre: a fencing weapon with a flat blade and knuckle guard, used with
cutting or thrusting actions; a military sword popular in the 18th
to 20th centuries; any cutting sword used by cavalry.
Salle: a fencing hall or club.
Salute: with the weapon, a customary acknowledgement of one's
opponent and referee at the start and end of the bout.
Second Intention: a false action used to draw a response from the
opponent, which will open the opportunity for the intended
action that follows, typically a counter-riposte.
Seconde: parry #2; blade down and to the outside, wrist pronated.
Septime: parry #7; blade down and to the inside, wrist supinated.
Simple: an attack or riposte that involves no feints.
Simultaneous: in foil and sabre, two attacks for which the
right-of-way is too close to determine.
Single Stick: a form of fencing with basket-hilted wooden sticks.
Sixte: parry #6; blade up and to the outside, wrist supinated.
Small Sword: a light duelling sword popular in the 18th century,
precursor to the foil.
Stop Hit: a counter-attack that hits; also a counter-attack whose touch
is valid by virtue of it's timing.
Stop Cut: a stop-hit with the edge in sabre, typically to the cuff.
Three Prong: a type of epee body wire/connector; also an old-fashioned
tip that would snag clothing, to make it easier to detect hits in the
Thrown Point: a "flick".
Thrust: an attack made by moving the sword parallel to its length and
landing with the point.
Tierce: parry #3; blade up and to the outside, wrist pronated.
Time Hit: also time-thrust; old name for stop hit with opposition.
Trompement: deception of the parry.
Two Prong: a type of body-wire/connector, used in foil and sabre.
Whip-over: in sabre, a touch that results from the foible of the blade
whipping over the opponent's guard or blade when parried.
Whites: fencing clothing.
Yellow Card: also advertissement, warning; used to indicate a minor
rule infraction by one of the fencers.
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