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Ultrasonic Vessel Visualization: From Extraction to Perception

Åsmund Rognerud Birkeland

PHDTHESIS, March, 2013

Abstract

Ultrasound is one of the most frequently used imaging modalities in modern medicine. The high versatility and availability of ultrasound workstations is applied in various medical scenarios, such as diagnosis, treatment planning, intra-operative imaging, and more. Modern ultrasound workstations provide live imaging of anatomical structures, as well as physiological processes, such as blood flow. However, the imaging technique have a high presence of noise, a small scan sector, and are much affected by attenuation artefacts. Thus, traditional techniques for segmentation and visualization are not applicable to ultrasound data. In this theses, we present our latest advancements in segmentation and visualization techniques, tailored specifically for the characteristics of ultrasound data. We present new methods for interactive vessel segmentation for both 3D freehand and 4D ultrasound. By directly involving the examiner in the segmentation approach as well as combining data from different probe viewpoints, we are able to obtain 3D models of blood vessels rapidly and robustly. With the ability of robust vessel extraction, we introduce novel visualization techniques which utilize the previously acquired 3D vessel models. For anatomical imaging, we present a new physics-based approach for volume clipping, enhanced slice rendering and even defining curved Couinaud-surfaces. The technique creates a deformable membrane to adapt to structures in the underlying data, defined either by predefined segmentation, iso-values, or other data attributes. For functional imaging, medical ultrasound can use the Doppler principle to image blood flow. However, Doppler ultrasound only measures a projected velocity magnitude of the data. In this thesis, we present a technique that uses the direction of the blood vessels in order to reconstruct 3D blood flow from Doppler ultrasound. By extending Doppler ultrasound with this directional information, we are able to apply traditional flow visualization techniques for displaying the blood flow. Finally, we investigated the usage of moving particles as a means to depict velocity in flow visualization. Based on a series of studies targeted for motion perception, we present a new compensation model to correct for distortions in the human visual system. This model can help users to make a more consistent estimation of velocities from evaluating the motion of particles.

Published

  • ISBN: ??
  • School: Department of Informatics, University of Bergen, Norway
  • Date: March 2013
  • Project: IllustraSound, MedViz, Illustrative Visualization

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BibTeX

@phdthesis{birkeland13thesis,
  title = {Ultrasonic Vessel Visualization: From Extraction to Perception},
  author = {{\AA}smund Rognerud Birkeland},
  year = {2013},
  month = {March},
  abstract = {Ultrasound is one of the most frequently used imaging modalities in 
   modern medicine. The high versatility and availability of ultrasound workstations 
   is applied in various medical scenarios, such as diagnosis, treatment planning, 
   intra-operative imaging, and more. Modern ultrasound workstations provide live 
   imaging of anatomical structures, as well as physiological processes, such as 
   blood flow. However, the imaging technique have a high presence of noise, a small 
   scan sector, and are much affected by attenuation artefacts. Thus, traditional 
   techniques for segmentation and visualization are not applicable to ultrasound 
   data. In this theses, we present our latest advancements in segmentation and 
   visualization techniques, tailored specifically for the characteristics of 
   ultrasound data. We present new methods for interactive vessel segmentation 
   for both 3D freehand and 4D ultrasound. By directly involving the examiner in 
   the segmentation approach as well as combining data from different probe viewpoints,
   we are able to obtain 3D models of blood vessels rapidly and robustly. With the 
   ability of robust vessel extraction, we introduce novel visualization techniques
   which utilize the previously acquired 3D vessel models. For anatomical imaging, 
   we present a new physics-based approach for volume clipping, enhanced slice 
   rendering and even defining curved Couinaud-surfaces. The technique creates a 
   deformable membrane to adapt to structures in the underlying data, defined either 
   by predefined segmentation, iso-values, or other data attributes. For functional 
   imaging, medical ultrasound can use the Doppler principle to image blood flow. 
   However, Doppler ultrasound only measures a projected velocity magnitude of the 
   data. In this thesis, we present a technique that uses the direction of the blood 
   vessels in order to reconstruct 3D blood flow from Doppler ultrasound. By extending 
   Doppler ultrasound with this directional information, we are able to apply 
   traditional flow visualization techniques for displaying the blood flow. Finally, 
   we investigated the usage of moving particles as a means to depict velocity in 
   flow visualization. Based on a series of studies targeted for motion perception, 
   we present a new compensation model to correct for distortions in the human visual 
   system. This model can help users to make a more consistent estimation of velocities 
   from evaluating the motion of particles.  },
  school = {Department of Informatics, University of Bergen, Norway},
  ISBN = { ?? },

}






 Last Modified: Jean-Paul Balabanian, 2014-06-19